你真的了解autowired么(一)?

背景

有天小伙伴问了个问题

1608a09fdb0fb7f663f93896df44601b983.jpg

2b0f62573c1242de7c90cc16c5063cd9209.jpg

3477b34dff28c484ad3c59d7203fe717643.jpg

多年的spring使用经验告诉我们resource是使用按照名称来进行依赖注入的 而autowired是按照类型进行注入【默认】

那么来解释下为何小伙伴这样使用没有问题吧~

分析

首先我们知道spring通过autowired注入的bean是需要进股票PostProcessor处理的。

对于autoWired来说就是AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor

我们来分析一下该Processor

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
/**
* 'Native' processing method for direct calls with an arbitrary target instance,
* resolving all of its fields and methods which are annotated with {@code @Autowired}.
* @param bean the target instance to process
* @throws BeanCreationException if autowiring failed
*/
public void processInjection(Object bean) throws BeanCreationException {
Class<?> clazz = bean.getClass();
InjectionMetadata metadata = findAutowiringMetadata(clazz.getName(), clazz, null);
try {
metadata.inject(bean, null, null);
}
catch (BeanCreationException ex) {
throw ex;
}
catch (Throwable ex) {
throw new BeanCreationException(
"Injection of autowired dependencies failed for class [" + clazz + "]", ex);
}
}
public void inject(Object target, String beanName, PropertyValues pvs) throws Throwable {
Collection<InjectedElement> elementsToIterate =
(this.checkedElements != null ? this.checkedElements : this.injectedElements);
if (!elementsToIterate.isEmpty()) {
boolean debug = logger.isDebugEnabled();
for (InjectedElement element : elementsToIterate) {
if (debug) {
logger.debug("Processing injected element of bean '" + beanName + "': " + element);
}
element.inject(target, beanName, pvs);
}
}
}

其实这边的InjectedElement对于autowired来说具体类型是AutowiredFieldElement或者AutowiredMethodElement

那么对应是通过beanfactory来resolveDependency

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
@Override
public Object resolveDependency(DependencyDescriptor descriptor, String requestingBeanName,
Set<String> autowiredBeanNames, TypeConverter typeConverter) throws BeansException {
descriptor.initParameterNameDiscovery(getParameterNameDiscoverer());
if (javaUtilOptionalClass == descriptor.getDependencyType()) {
return new OptionalDependencyFactory().createOptionalDependency(descriptor, requestingBeanName);
}
else if (ObjectFactory.class == descriptor.getDependencyType() ||
ObjectProvider.class == descriptor.getDependencyType()) {
return new DependencyObjectProvider(descriptor, requestingBeanName);
}
else if (javaxInjectProviderClass == descriptor.getDependencyType()) {
return new Jsr330ProviderFactory().createDependencyProvider(descriptor, requestingBeanName);
}
else {
Object result = getAutowireCandidateResolver().getLazyResolutionProxyIfNecessary(
descriptor, requestingBeanName);
if (result == null) {
result = doResolveDependency(descriptor, requestingBeanName, autowiredBeanNames, typeConverter);
}
return result;
}
}

后面讨论一下关于懒加载以及对应Optional注入

那么实质上大部分bean【如果是直接创建的】

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
public Object doResolveDependency(DependencyDescriptor descriptor, String beanName,
Set<String> autowiredBeanNames, TypeConverter typeConverter) throws BeansException {
InjectionPoint previousInjectionPoint = ConstructorResolver.setCurrentInjectionPoint(descriptor);
try {
Object shortcut = descriptor.resolveShortcut(this);
if (shortcut != null) {
return shortcut;
}
Class<?> type = descriptor.getDependencyType();
Object value = getAutowireCandidateResolver().getSuggestedValue(descriptor);
if (value != null) {
if (value instanceof String) {
String strVal = resolveEmbeddedValue((String) value);
BeanDefinition bd = (beanName != null && containsBean(beanName) ? getMergedBeanDefinition(beanName) : null);
value = evaluateBeanDefinitionString(strVal, bd);
}
TypeConverter converter = (typeConverter != null ? typeConverter : getTypeConverter());
return (descriptor.getField() != null ?
converter.convertIfNecessary(value, type, descriptor.getField()) :
converter.convertIfNecessary(value, type, descriptor.getMethodParameter()));
}
Object multipleBeans = resolveMultipleBeans(descriptor, beanName, autowiredBeanNames, typeConverter);
if (multipleBeans != null) {
return multipleBeans;
}
Map<String, Object> matchingBeans = findAutowireCandidates(beanName, type, descriptor);
if (matchingBeans.isEmpty()) {
if (isRequired(descriptor)) {
raiseNoMatchingBeanFound(type, descriptor.getResolvableType(), descriptor);
}
return null;
}
String autowiredBeanName;
Object instanceCandidate;
if (matchingBeans.size() > 1) {
autowiredBeanName = determineAutowireCandidate(matchingBeans, descriptor);
if (autowiredBeanName == null) {
if (isRequired(descriptor) || !indicatesMultipleBeans(type)) {
return descriptor.resolveNotUnique(type, matchingBeans);
}
else {
// In case of an optional Collection/Map, silently ignore a non-unique case:
// possibly it was meant to be an empty collection of multiple regular beans
// (before 4.3 in particular when we didn't even look for collection beans).
return null;
}
}
instanceCandidate = matchingBeans.get(autowiredBeanName);
}
else {
// We have exactly one match.
Map.Entry<String, Object> entry = matchingBeans.entrySet().iterator().next();
autowiredBeanName = entry.getKey();
instanceCandidate = entry.getValue();
}
if (autowiredBeanNames != null) {
autowiredBeanNames.add(autowiredBeanName);
}
return (instanceCandidate instanceof Class ?
descriptor.resolveCandidate(autowiredBeanName, type, this) : instanceCandidate);
}
finally {
ConstructorResolver.setCurrentInjectionPoint(previousInjectionPoint);
}
}

将会存在几种情况【针对普通类型】

  1. 查不到该类型的bean
  2. 查找到对应bean【1个】
  3. 查找到对应的bean【多个】

第一种情况如果required位为alse则返回空否则报错【至少要存在一个对应类型的bean】

第二种情况直接将对应的bean注入即可

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
/**
* Determine the autowire candidate in the given set of beans.
* <p>Looks for {@code @Primary} and {@code @Priority} (in that order).
* @param candidates a Map of candidate names and candidate instances
* that match the required type, as returned by {@link #findAutowireCandidates}
* @param descriptor the target dependency to match against
* @return the name of the autowire candidate, or {@code null} if none found
*/
protected String determineAutowireCandidate(Map<String, Object> candidates, DependencyDescriptor descriptor) {
Class<?> requiredType = descriptor.getDependencyType();
String primaryCandidate = determinePrimaryCandidate(candidates, requiredType);
if (primaryCandidate != null) {
return primaryCandidate;
}
String priorityCandidate = determineHighestPriorityCandidate(candidates, requiredType);
if (priorityCandidate != null) {
return priorityCandidate;
}
// Fallback
for (Map.Entry<String, Object> entry : candidates.entrySet()) {
String candidateName = entry.getKey();
Object beanInstance = entry.getValue();
if ((beanInstance != null && this.resolvableDependencies.containsValue(beanInstance)) ||
matchesBeanName(candidateName, descriptor.getDependencyName())) {
return candidateName;
}
}
return null;
}

第三种情况从上述描述中可以存在三种情况

  1. 标注Primary的bean
  2. 标注高优先级的bean【即实现ordered接口】
  3. 最后可以fallback到对应名称的bean

这也就是为啥多个类进行Autowired也可以注入成功的原因!

所以当问到Autowired是byType还是byName各位要小心解答了噢!